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What Powers the IoT?

By Stephan Ohr, Gartner

Powering the Internet of Things (IoT) is a special challenge, says Gartner analyst Stephan Ohr, especially for the wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) that must collect and report data on their environmental states (temperature, pressure, humidity, vibration and the like). While the majority of WSNs will harness nearby power sources and batteries, there will be as many as 10% of the sensor nodes that must be entirely self-powering. Often located in places where it is difficult or impossible to replace batteries, these remote sensor nodes must continue to function for 20 years or more.

Two research and development efforts focus on self-powering remote sensor nodes: One effort looks at energy harvesting devices, which gather power from ambient sources. The major types of energy harvesting devices include specialized solar cells, vibration and motion energy harvesters, and devices that take advantage of thermal gradients warm and cool surfaces. Research and development concentrated on reducing the size and cost of these devices, and making their energy gathering more efficient. But even in their current state of development, these devices could add up to a half-billion in revenues per year within the next five years.

The other R&D effort concentrates on low-power analog semiconductors which will elevate the milli-volt outputs of energy harvesting devices to the levels necessary for powering sensors, microcontrollers, and wireless transceivers. These devices include DC-DC boost converters, sensor signal conditioning amplifiers, and, in some cases, data converter ICs which transform the analog sensor signals to digital patterns the microcontroller can utilize. Broadline analog suppliers like Linear Technology Corp. and Analog Devices have added low-power ICs to their product portfolios. In addition to boosting low-level signals, they use very little power themselves. LTC’s low-power parts, for example, have a quiescent current rating of 1.3 micro-amps. Other companies liked Advanced Linear Devices (ALD) have been working on low-threshold electronics for years, and Texas Instruments has a lineup of specialized power management devices for WSN applications.

Ohr’s projections on energy harvesting will be part of his talk on “Powering the Internet of Things” at the Sainte Claire Hotel, San Jose, CA on October 24, 2013. (Admission is free, but advance registration is required The Internet of Things – A Disruption and an Evolution)

Source: Gartner Research (Oct 2013)

Stephan (“Steve”) Ohr is the Research Director for Analog ICs, Sensors and Power Management devices at Gartner, Inc., and focuses on markets that promise semiconductor revenue growth. His recent reports have explored custom power management ICs for smart phones and tablets, the impact of Apple’s choices on the MEMs sensor industry, and a competitive landscape for MEMs sensor suppliers.

Ohr’s engineering degree, a BS in Industrial Engineering, comes from the New Jersey Institute of Technology (the Newark College of Engineering) and his graduate degree, an MA in sociology, comes from Rutgers.

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