Gabe Moretti, Senior Editor
The first part of the article, published last week, covered design methods and standards in EDA together with industry predictions that impacted all of our industry. This part will cover automotive, design verification and FPGA. I found it interesting that David Kelf, VP of Marketing at OneSpin Solutions, thought that Machine learning will begin to penetrate the EDA industry as well. He stated: “Machine Learning hit a renaissance and is finding its way into a number of market segments. Why should design automation be any different? 2017 will be the start of machine learning to create a new breed of design automation tool, equipped with this technology and able to configure itself for specific designs and operations to perform them more efficiently. By adapting algorithms to suit the input code, many interesting things will be possible.”
Rob Knoth, Product Management Director, Digital and Signoff Group at Cadence touched on an issue that is being talked about more recently: security. He noted that: “In 2016, IoT bot-net attacks brought down large swaths of the Internet – the first time the security impact of IoT was felt by many. Private and nation-state attacks compromised personal/corporate/government email throughout the year. “
In 2017, we have the potential for security concerns to start a retreat from always-on social media and a growing value on private time and information. I don’t see a silver bullet for security on our horizon. Instead, I anticipate an increasing focus for products to include security managers (like their safety counterparts) on the design team and to consider safety from the initial concept through the design/production cycle.
Figure 1. Just one of the many electronics systems found in an automobile (courtesy of Mentor)
The automotive industry has increased the use of electronics year over year for a long time. At this point an automobile is a true intelligent system, at least as far as what the driver and passenger can see and hear the “infotainment system”. Late model cars also offer collision avoidance and stay-in-lane functions, but more is coming.
Here is what Wally Rhines thinks: “Automotive and aerospace designers have traditionally been driven by mechanical design. Now the differentiation and capability of cars and planes is increasingly being driven by electronics. Ask your children what features they want to see in a new car. The answer will be in-vehicle infotainment. If you are concerned about safety, the designers of automobiles are even more concerned. They have to deal with new regulations like ISO 26262, as well as other capabilities, in addition to environmental requirements and the basic task of “sensor fusion” as we attach more and more visual, radar, laser and other sensors to the car. There is no way to reliably design vehicles and aircraft without virtual simulation of electrical behavior.
In addition, total system simulation has become a requirement. How do you know that the wire bundle will fit through the hole in the door frame? EDA tools can tell you the answer, but only after seeking out the data from the mechanical design. Wiring in a car or plane is a three dimensional problem. EDA tools traditionally worry about two dimension routing problems. The world is changing. We are going to see the basic EDA technology for designing integrated circuits be applied to the design of systems. Companies that can remain at the leading edge of IC design will be able to apply that technology to systems.”
David Kelf, VP of Marketing at OneSpin Solutions, observed: “OneSpin called it last year and I’ll do it again –– Automotive will be the “killer app” of 2017. With new players entering the marketing all the time, we will see impressive designs featured in advanced cars, which themselves will move toward a driverless future. All automotive designs currently being designed for safety will need to be built to be as secure as possible. The ISO 26262 committee is working on security as well safety and I predict security will feature in the standard in 2017. Tools to help predict vulnerabilities will become more important. Formal, of course, is the perfect platform for this capability. Watch for advanced security features in formal.”
Rob Knoth, Product Management Director, Digital and Signoff Group at Cadence noted: “In 2016, autonomous vehicle technology reached an inflection point. We started seeing more examples of private companies operating SAE 3 in America and abroad (Singapore, Pittsburgh, San Francisco). We also saw active participation by the US and world governments to help guide tech companies in the proliferation and safety of the technology (ex. US DOT V2V/V2I standard guidelines, and creating federal ADAS guidelines to prevent state-level differences). Probably the most unique example was also the first drone delivery by a major retailer, something which was hinted at 3 years prior and seemingly just a flight of fancy then.
Looking ahead to 2017, both the breadth and depth are expected to expand, including the first operation of SAE level 4/5 in limited use on public streets outside the US, and on private roads inside US. Outside of ride sharing and city driving, I expect to see the increasing spread of ADAS technology to long distance trucking and non-urban transportation. To enable this, additional investments from traditional vehicle OEM’s partnering with both software and silicon companies will be needed to enable high-levels of autonomous functions. To help bring these to reality, I also expect the release of new standards to guide both the functional safety and reliability of automotive semiconductors. Even though the pace of government standards can lag, for ADAS technology to reach its true potential, it will require both standards and innovation.”
The IoT market is expected to provide a significant opportunity to the electronics industry to grow revenue and open new markets. I think the use of FPGA in IoT dvices will increase the use of these devices in system design.
I asked Geoff Tate, CEO of FlexLogix, his opinions on the subject. He offered four points that he expects to become reality in 2017:
1. the first customer chip will be fabricated using embedded FPGA from an IP supplier
2. the first customer announcements will be made of customers adopting embedded FPGA from an IP supplier
3. embedded FPGAs will be proven in silicon running at 1GHz+
4. the number of customers doing chip design using embedded FPGA will go from a handful to dozen.
Zibi Zalewski, Hardware Division General Manager at Aldec also addressed the FPGA subject.
“I believe FPGA devices are an important technology player to mention when talking what to expect in 2017. With the growth of embedded electronics driven by Automotive, Embedded Vision and/or IoT markets, FPGA technology becomes a core element particularly for in products that require low power and re-programmability.
Features of FPGA such as pipelining and the ability to execute and easily scale parallel instances of the implemented function allow for the use of FPGA for more than just the traditionally understood embedded markets. FPGA computing power usage is exploding in the High Performance Computing (HPC) where FPGA devices are used to accelerate different scientific algorithms, big data processing and complement CPU based data centers and clouds. We can’t talk about FPGA these days without mentioning SoC FPGAs which merge the microprocessor (quite often ARM) with reprogrammable space. Thanks to such configurations, it is possible to combine software and hardware worlds into one device with the benefits of both.
All those activities have led to solid growth in FPGA engineering, which is pushing on further growth of FPGA development and verification tools. This includes not only typical solutions in simulation and implementation. We should also observe solid growth in tools and services simplifying the usage of FPGA for those who don’t even know this technology such as high level synthesis or engineering services to port C/C++ sources into FPGA implementable code. The demand for development environments like compilers supporting both software and hardware platforms will only be growing, with the main goal focused on ease of use by wide group of engineers who were not even considering the FPGA platform for their target application.
At the other end of the FPGA rainbow are the fast-growing, largest FPGA offered both from Xilinx and Intel/Altera. ASIC design emulation and prototyping will push harder and harder on the so called big-box emulators offering higher performance and significantly lower price per gate and so becoming more affordable for even smaller SoC projects. This is especially true when partnered with high quality design mapping software that handles multi-FPGA partitioning, interconnections, clocks and memories.”
Figure 2. Verification can look like a maze at times
There are many methods to verify a design and companies will, quite often, use more than one on the same design. Each method: simulation, formal analysis, and emulation, has its strong points.
For many years, logic simulation was the only tool available, although hardware acceleration of logic simulation was also available.
Frank Schirrmeister, Senior Product Management Group Director, System and Verification Group at Cadence submitted a through analysis of verification issues. He wrote: “From a verification perspective, we will see further market specialization in 2017 – mobile, server, automotive (especially ADAS) and aero/defense markets will further create specific requirements for tools and flows, including ISO 26262 TCL1 documentation and support for other standards. The Internet of Things (IoT) with its specific security and low power requirements really runs across application domains. Continuing the trend in 2016, verification flows will continue to become more application-specific in 2017, often centered on specific processor architectures. For instance, verification solutions optimized for mobile applications have different requirements than for servers and automotive applications or even aerospace and defense designs. As application-specific requirements grow stronger and stronger, this trend is likely to continue going forward, but cross-impact will also happen (like mobile and multimedia on infotainment in automotive).
Traditionally ecosystems have been centered on processor architectures. Mobile and Server are key examples, with their respective leading architectures holding the lion share of their respective markets. The IoT is mixing this up a little as more processor architectures can play and offer unique advantages, with configurable and extensible architectures. No clear winner is in sight yet, but 2017 will be a key year in the race between IoT processor architectures. Even OpenSource hardware architectures are look like they will be very relevant judging from the recent momentum which eerily reminds me of the early Linux days. It’s one of the most entertaining spaces to watch in 2017 and for years to come.
Verification will become a whole lot smarter. The core engines themselves continue to compete on performance and capacity. Differentiation further moves in how smart applications run on top of the core engines and how smart they are used in conjunction.
For the dynamic engines in software-based simulation, the race towards increased speed and parallel execution will accelerate together with flows and methodologies for automotive safety and digital mixed-signal applications.
In the hardware emulation world, differentiation for the two basic ways of emulating – processor-based and FPGA-based – will be more and more determined by how the engines are used. Specifically, the various use models for core emulation like verification acceleration low power verification, dynamic power analysis, post-silicon validation—often driven by the ever growing software content—will extend further, with more virtualization joining real world connections. Yes, there will also be competition on performance, which clearly varies between processor-based and FPGA-based architectures—depending on design size and how much debug is enabled—as well as the versatility of use models, which determines the ROI of emulation.
FPGA-based prototypes address the designer’s performance needs for software development, using the same core FPGA fabrics. Therefore, differentiation moves into the software stacks on top, and the congruency between emulation and FPGA-based prototyping using multi-fabric compilation allows mapping both into emulation and FPGA-based prototyping.
All this is complemented by smart connections into formal techniques and cross-engine verification planning, debug and software-driven verification (i.e. software becoming the test bench at the SoC level). Based on standardization driven by the Portable Stimulus working group in Accellera, verification reuse between engines and cross-engine optimization will gain further importance.
Besides horizontal integration between engines—virtual prototyping, simulation, formal, emulation and FPGA-based prototyping—the vertical integration between abstraction levels will become more critical in 2017 as well. For low power specifically, activity data created from RTL execution in emulation can be connected to power information extracted from .lib technology files using gate-level representations or power estimation from RTL. This allows designers to estimate hardware-based power consumption in the context of software using deep cycles over longer timeframes that are emulated. ‘
Anyone who knows Frank will not be surprised by the length of the answer.
Wally Rhines, Chairman and CEO of Mentor Graphics was less verbose. He said:” Total system simulation has become a requirement. How do you know that the wire bundle will fit through the hole in the door frame? EDA tools can tell you the answer, but only after seeking out the data from the mechanical design. Wiring in a car or plane is a three dimensional problem. EDA tools traditionally worry about two dimension routing problems. The world is changing. We are going to see the basic EDA technology for designing integrated circuits be applied to the design of systems. Companies that can remain at the leading edge of IC design will be able to apply that technology to systems.
This will create a new market for EDA. It will be larger than the traditional IC design market for EDA. But it will be based upon the basic simulation, verification and analysis tools of IC design EDA. Sometime in the near future, designers of complex systems will be able to make tradeoffs early in the design cycle by using virtual simulation. That know-how will come from integrated circuit design. It’s no longer feasible to build prototypes of systems and test them for design problems. That approach is going away. In its place will be virtual prototyping. This will be made possible by basic EDA technology. Next year will be a year of rapid progress in that direction. I’m excited by the possibilities as we move into the next generation of electronic design automation.”
The increasing size of chips has made emulation a more popular tool than in the past. Lauro Rizzatti, Principal at Lauro Rizzatti LLC, is a pioneer in emulation and continues to be thought of as a leading expert in the method. He noted: “Expect new use models for hardware emulation in 2017 that will support traditional market segments such as processor, graphics, networking and storage, and emerging markets currently underserved by emulation –– safety and security, along with automotive and IoT.
Chips will continue to be bigger and more complex, and include an ever-increasing amount of embedded software. Project groups will increasingly turn to hardware emulation because it’s the only verification tool to debug the interaction between the embedded software and the underlying hardware. It is also the only tool capable to estimate power consumption in a realistic environment, when the chip design is booting an OS and processing software apps. More to the point, hardware emulation can thoroughly test the integrity of a design after the insertion of DFT logic, since it can verify gate-level netlists of any size, a virtually impossible task with logic simulators.
Finally, its move to the data center solidifies its position as a foundational verification tool that offers a reasonable cost of ownership.”
Formal verification tools, sometimes referred to as “static analysis tools” have seen their use increase year over year once vendors found human interface methods that did not require a highly-trained user. Roger Sabbagh, VP of Application Engineering at Oski Technology pointed out: “The world is changing at an ever-increasing pace and formal verification is one area of EDA that is leading the way. As we stand on the brink of 2017, I can only imagine what great new technologies we will experience in the coming year. Perhaps it’s having a package delivered to our house by a flying drone or riding in a driverless car or eating food created by a 3-D printer. But one thing I do know is that in the coming year, more people will have the critical features of their architectural design proven by formal verification. That’s right. System-level requirements, such as coherency, absence of deadlock, security and safety will increasingly be formally verified at the architectural design level. Traditionally, we relied on RTL verification to test these requirements, but the coverage and confidence gained at that level is insufficient. Moreover, bugs may be found very late in the design cycle where they risk generating a lot of churn. The complexity of today’s systems of systems on a chip dictates that a new approach be taken. Oski is now deploying architectural formal verification with design architects very early in the design process, before any RTL code is developed, and it’s exciting to see the benefits it brings. I’m sure we will be hearing a lot more about this in the coming year and beyond!”
Finally David Kelf, VP Marketing at OneSpin Solutions observed: “We will see tight integrations between simulation and formal that will drive adoption among simulation engineers in greater numbers than before. The integration will include the tightening of coverage models, joint debug and functionality where the formal method can pick up from simulation and even emulation with key scenarios for bug hunting.”
The two combined articles are indeed quite long. But the EDA industry is serving a multi-faceted set of customers with varying and complex requirements. To do it justice, length is unavoidable.